# Swap Items in an Array

## Swap Two Variables

In Python, swapping two variables is a one-liner: `a, b = b, a`.

In languages such as Java, swapping requires the use of a temporary variable:

``````temp = a;
a = b;
b = temp;
``````

If we know the two variables are integers, can we swap them without using a temporary variable?

``````>>> a, b = 5, 20
>>> a ^= b
>>> b ^= a
>>> a ^= b
>>> a, b
(20, 5)
``````

It’s a fun little exercise to convince yourself that the above procedure indeed works. Keep in mind that the XOR operator is commutative and that `x ^ x = 0`.

Another way is to use the plus and minus operators:

``````>>> a, b = 5, 20
>>> a = a + b
>>> b = a - b
>>> a = a - b
>>> a, b
(20, 5)
``````

Note that the above two procedures only work when `a` and `b` are integers.

## Swap Two Items in an Array

Given a list `L` and two indices `i` and `j`, we can swap the `L[i]` and `L[j]` in one-line: `L[i], L[j] = L[j], L[i]`.

## Shuffle an Array

Given an array, write a program to generate a random permutation of array elements.

The Fisher–Yates shuffle is a well-known algorithm to solve this problem. In pseudocode, the algorithm works as follows

``````for i from n−1 down to 1 do
j ← random integer such that 0 ≤ j ≤ i
swap a[j] and a[i]
``````

Here’s the Python implementation:

``````import random

def shuffle_list(L):
for i in range(len(L) - 1, 0, -1):
j = random.randint(0, i)
L[i], L[j] = L[j], L[i]
``````

Note that `random.randint(a, b)` returns a random integer `n` such that `a <= n <= b`.

Let’s see the function in action:

``````>>> L = list(range(10))
>>> shuffle_list(L); L
[4, 8, 3, 0, 7, 6, 5, 9, 2, 1]
>>> shuffle_list(L); L
[3, 5, 6, 0, 7, 8, 4, 2, 1, 9]
>>> shuffle_list(L); L
[0, 7, 8, 4, 1, 2, 5, 3, 9, 6]
``````